Beginners Guide

Ethereum-Complete Guide on World’s Second Crypto

Written by: Qadir AK

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Qadir AK

Qadir Ak is the founder of Coinpedia. He has over a decade of experience writing about technology and has been covering the blockchain and cryptocurrency space since 2010. He has also interviewed a few prominent experts within the cryptocurrency space.

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Oct 3, 2020


When you hear about the Term, ‘Cryptocurrency’, What comes to your mind? Bitcoin? Sure!! What else?? 


If you have been following crypto-markets, you would have heard about Ethereum.

With the enormous number of cryptocurrencies available, Ethereum is among the most popular, with Bitcoin standing at the top of the list. Ethereum has emerged as the second most valuable digital assets platform, after Bitcoin in market capitalization. 

Bitcoin and Ethereum are both digital currencies, but the primary purpose of ether is not to establish itself as an alternative monetary system, but rather to facilitate and monetize the operation of the Ethereum smart contract and decentralized application (dapp) platform.

Ethereum has been in the news since its inception in 2015 for its innovative approach to provide a platform for developers. It was developed by a Russian-Canadian programmer, Vitalik Buterin.

Let us learn more about ethereum?? What is it trying to change??

What is Ethereum?

Ethereum, like Cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin, is a digital currency that can be transferred. It can, however, do a lot more, including deploying your code and interacting with apps made by other users. Ethereum may be used to launch a wide range of sophisticated apps because of its flexibility.

Simply defined, Ethereum’s basic notion is that instead of residing on a centralized network, programmers can write and launch code that operates over a distributed system.

The platform was intended to let developers write and deploy smart contracts and distributed apps (dApps) without the danger of failure, fraud, or third-party intervention.

Ethereum bills itself as the first programmable blockchain throughout the world. It differs from Bitcoin and it is a customizable network that acts as a marketplace for financial products, entertainment, and apps; it can all be purchased using Ether money and is free of theft, fraud, and restriction.

How does Ethereum work?

The Ethereum system, like Bitcoin, is distributed among millions of servers throughout the world, thanks to people acting as “nodes” rather than a centralized server. As a result, the network is decentralized and highly resistant to attacks, and it is virtually impossible to bring down. It doesn’t matter if one computer fails because the system is supported by hundreds of others.

Ethereum is a single, decentralized system that is powered by the Ethereum Virtual Machine, a computer (EVM). Every node has a copy of that computer, therefore any interactions must be confirmed so that everybody’s copy may be updated.

In the Ethereum platform, networking interactions are referred to as “transactions” and are stored in blocks. Miners verify these blocks before submitting them to the network, which acts as a digital ledger or transactional data. Proof-of-work consensus is a consensus technique used to sign documents. Every block is identified by a 64-digit code. Miners devote their computing resources to locating that code and demonstrating its uniqueness. Miners are paid in ETH for their efforts, and their computational power serves as “proof” of that labor.

Ethereum is based on a blockchain network, just like all other cryptocurrencies. All activities are validated and documented on a blockchain, which is a decentralized public ledger.

To interact with Ethereum, you’ll need Bitcoin, which you’ll keep in a wallet. That wallet links to DApps and serves as an Ethereum ecosystem passport. Anyone can buy things, play games, lend money, and do all sorts of things from there, just like they can on the traditional internet. The traditional web, on the other hand, is free to users because they are handing out personal information. The data is then sold to gain money by centralized corporations that control websites.

The Ethereum blockchain could be utilized as a transactional state-based system. The following is a basic description of how it works:

Step 1: There are millions of transactions in each Ethereum state.

Step 2: These transactions are organized into blocks that are linked to each other.

Step 3: However, before the transaction is applied to the ledger, it must be checked using a procedure called mining.

Step 4: A large number of miners compete with one another to form a block.

Step 5: After the miner creates a block, Ether tokens are produced and given to the miners.

Ethereum Smart Contracts

Smart contracts are an important part of several blockchains, such as Ethereum. They might have had a “non-actionable” section with legalese, similar to a typical contract. The ‘actionable’ component of smart contracts, on the other hand, is the most fascinating element.

Unlike commercial procurement, which relies on human intermediaries to protect their integrity and enforce their terms, smart contracts use mathematical algorithms to accomplish the same goal.

Consider a soda machine to see how it works. You toss in a coin and receive, say, a newspaper. You don’t get a coin unless you put it in. 

Great! You put coins in now, but you don’t get newspapers. What will be the next step?

This is the type of situation in which a smart contract can be useful. To put it another way, a smart contract is a piece of code that performs a specific preset function when certain criteria are met. In any blockchain-based operation, trust is built using contracts.

The extensibility of Ethereum, on the other hand, allows developers to use it in novel ways. As a result, they might feature a variety of details to meet the requirements. The Ethereum Virtual Machine, or EVM, made this feasible. As smart contracts rely on mathematical formulas, they do away with the need for middlemen.

Ethereum Virtual Machine

The Ethereum virtual machine, or EVM in short, is a software application based on the Ethereum blockchain. It enables programmers to design decentralized apps (Dapps). They are highly valued by programmers since they have no downtime and maintain all produced objects safe from modification.

The physical manifestation of the EVM cannot be compared to that of a cloud or an ocean wave, but it does exist as a singular body managed by hundreds of computers connected to an Ethereum client.

The Ethereum protocol is the ecosystem in which all Ethereum identities and smart contracts reside, yet it exists solely to assure the continuous, unaffected, and immutable operation of this one-of-a-kind state machine. 

  • External and contractual Ethereum accounts are both possibilities. By completing a transaction, you can transfer Ether or binary files from one account to another.
  • EVM performance cannot be purposely slowed due to the use of gas.
  • You can utilise storage, memory, or a stack to store your data on Ethereum.
  • The self-destructSeveralbased on multi-signature can be used to destroy EVM accounts. You can also turn them off by changing an internal state.

Benefits of Ethereum 

Some of the major benefits of Ethereum can be described in detail as follows:

1) The Ethereum network serves as a security advantage factor for encrypting networks, thereby preventing hackers from breaking in with the absence of a central authoritative network. 

2) Ethereum’s other valuable benefit is its work in the initial coin offerings. Often named as the ICOs or Token Sales, this is a funding mechanism that enables users from the early-stage start-ups to build “tokens” and exchange them for Ether. These tokens have an interest in the applications of start-up development and profit-trading.

3) Another application is related to third-party fees and privacy rights. The lack of a centralized network and the encryption of data codes allow for the strength of privacy and safe payment transactions through the decentralized system. 

4) Smart contracts may be used for different scenarios, from centralized financial activities in the preparation and strengthening of insurance and tax financing or agreements.

Ethereum Applications

Ethereum is supposed to be low-cost, open, and adaptable, as well as suitable for multi-party collaboration. The platform performs similarly to a distributed ledger in terms of data coordination, but its architecture also includes unique layers that improve and expand the capabilities of commercial systems. For those interested in learning more about the various functions, These are Enterprise Ethereum’s existing capabilities:

  1. Coordination of data Ethereum’s decentralised architecture better distributes knowledge and trust, removing the need for participating nodes to rely on a single body to run the system and conduct transactions.
  2. Rapid deployment is a must. Instead of building a blockchain implementation from scratch, organisations can easily create and administer private blockchain networks using an all-in-one SaaS platform like Hyperledger Besu.
  3. Permissioned network is a network that only certain people have access to. The open-source ConsenSys Quorum protocol allows enterprises to build on the Ethereum network, guaranteeing that their solution complies with any legal or security standards.
  4. Size of the network The main net demonstrates that an Ethereum network can support millions of users and hundreds of nodes. Most corporate blockchain competitors build networks with fewer than ten nodes and therefore have no experience with a large, functioning network. For enterprise consortia that will surpass a few nodes, network size is crucial.
  5. Transactions that are kept private By building private consortia with private transaction layers, businesses can reach the Severalanularity of privacy on Ethereum. Private information is never shared with other members of the ConsenSys Quorum network. Data is encrypted and shared only with those who need to know.

Ethereum Limitations

Despite bringing many advantages, there are some limitations faced by decentralized systems. Code bugs or oversights may lead to the taking of unintended negative acts. If a code error is exploited there is no successful way to avoid an attack or manipulation other than to achieve a network consensus and rewrite the underlying code.

This runs contrary to the essence of the blockchain that is supposed to be permanent. In addition, any action taken by a central authority poses significant concerns about the decentralized existence of a request.

What is a Gas Fee?

When you start using Ethereum, you will hear something about the gas fee. On the ethereum blockchain, gas refers to the cost necessary to perform a transaction on the network. Miners set the price of gas based on supply and demand for the computational power of the network needed to process smart contracts and other transactions. 

Gas prices are denoted in small fractions of ether called gwei. Gas fees have been as low as 92 gwei, and have reached up to 130 gwei. These gas prices depend on the time taken to complete the transactions.

1 gwei = 0.000000001 ether.

Every computation that occurs as a result of a transaction on the Ethereum network incurs a fee . There’s no free lunch!

ERC-20 Token

ERC-20 has emerged as the configuration name; it is used for all smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain for token implementations and specifies a set of rules that must be followed by all Ethereum-based tokens.

In some ways, ERC-20 tokens are blockchain-based assets with value that is sent and acquired, similar to bitcoin, Dogecoin, and any other cryptocurrency. ERC-20 tokens, on the other hand, are produced on the Ethereum network rather than on their own blockchain.

Ethereum Based Defi tokens

These are mainly of two types which can be described as follows:

1) Work Token: These are the tokens in the DAPP that mark you as a kind of shareholder. You have a say in the path that the DAPP takes because of that. The DAO tokens offer a great example of this. You had the right to vote on whether or not a specific DAPP should get funding from the DAO if you were a DAO token holder.

2) Usage Tokens: These are the tokens in their respective DAPPS that function like native currency. A fairly good example of this is Golem. If you want to use Golem facilities, you will need to pay for them with the Golem Network Token (GNT). Although these tokens have a monetary value within the network itself, they will not grant you any unique rights or privileges.

Ethereum 2.0

The next update to the Ethereum blockchain is Ethereum 2.0, also called Eth2 or “Serenity”. Ethereum 2.0 has been launched with Phase 0 in several ‘Phases’ which began in 2020. Each step will enhance Ethereum’s functionality and efficiency in various ways. Ethereum 2.0 is planned to be rolled out in at least three phases: Phase 0, 1, and 2.

Proof of Stake (PoS) is an improvement from the existing Proof of Work consensus model of Ethereum 1.0 and enables enhanced security and scalability. PoS is a method for the continuation of blocks on the blockchain-based on validators and staked ETH.

Compared to the more abstract disincentive of losing the costs associated with energy, the Proof of Stake mechanism provides more crypto-economic stability. Staking on Ethereum 2.0 would only involve a consumer laptop instead of investing in a large mining facility to pay for the cost of electricity to mine blocks in PoW.


Ethereum is a public service and is open-source. It uses blockchain technology to safely allow smart contracts and cryptocurrency trading without any third-party interference. Ethereum has two types of accounts: publicly managed accounts that are operated by user-influenced private keys and contract accounts.

Developers have the ability to create decentralized applications of all kinds of Ethereum. The most common cryptocurrency is Bitcoin. But the rapid development of Ethereum has led many experts in blockchain to conclude that Ethereum will soon exceed Bitcoin in usage.

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Qadir AK

Qadir Ak is the founder of Coinpedia. He has over a decade of experience writing about technology and has been covering the blockchain and cryptocurrency space since 2010. He has also interviewed a few prominent experts within the cryptocurrency space.

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